Thuhfat ul Mujahideen - As the history of the struggle of Indian Muslims and Islam

Thuhfat ul Mujahideen - As the history of the struggle of Indian Muslims and Islam

Tuhfat ul Mujahideen is a book that should be discussed with great importance.  It has been important in the Indian independence movement since its inception.  Tuhfat ul Mujahideen should also be considered as a book that inspired the Muslim community to fight against the occupying forces in a situation that alienates the Muslim community.

Introduction to Tuhfat ul Mujahideen

Tuhfatul Mujahideen is an Arabic history book not only among Keralite historians and students, but also among scholars inside and outside India working in the field of Portuguese colonial studies.  Sheikh Zainuddin Makhdoom II's Tuhfatul Mujahideen, This authentic book is a historical account of a century of resistance against the Portuguese who sought to establish dominance in Kerala and the Muslim community that led it.  In this book, he narrates the facts which he has personally experienced and obtained through a faith-based method.

Tuhfat ul Mujahideen: Translations into other languages

History of the Medieval Naval Tradition of Kerala and the Kunhalimaraikans who built that tradition.  That is, it has been recognized by scholars as a rare book on the history of the Portuguese invasions from 498 to 1583 and against them.  That is why the importance of this book is given by Muhammad Qasim Firike in the second part of his history (History of the Rise of Mohamedan Power in India Till the year 1612)  added and translated into English by Anderson with his notes. 

 The fourth part of the book, which describes the Malabar invasions, was translated into Portuguese by Delot.  The book was translated into English in its entirety by Lt. Govt.  Translated in 1833 by Jeroulandsen.  In addition to him, Amerson, Jameson Briggs, and Rox translated the book.  In 1942 from the University of Madras.  Muhammad Hussain Nair Wanted Caption.  Brought out another English translation with.  This Arabic book was published in 1931 by Hakeem Shamsullah Qadiri from Hyderabad.  He also published parts of himself in Urdu.  Prior to that, the book was published in Lisbon in Arabic. 

 The book has been translated into Latin, French, Spanish, Czech and Indian languages ​​such as Karnataka and Tamil.  It was first translated into Malayalam by Vela Yudhan Panickassery (Kerala in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Kottayam 1963).  Another translation by Shri.K.  Mussan Kutty Moulavi (Tirurangadi) was first published in Arabic Malayalam (1936) and later in Malayalam script. 

Zainuddin Makhdoom Ma'bari

All this confirms the reputation of Tuhfatul Mujahideen as a historical book.  This book has been circulated in Islamic study centers in Kerala as manuscripts since its inception.  We do not have much biographical knowledge about the author, Sheikh Zainuddin Makhdoom Mabbari.  The legacy of the scholar, philosopher and historian Zainuddin was the Makhdoom family of Ponnani and the Islamic tradition they nurtured.  His grandfather Zainuddin Makhdoom I was another person who nurtured the political and intellectual heritage of the Kerala Muslim community.  The Portuguese came to Kerala during his lifetime. Of particular note is his Arabic revolutionary poem, Tahrisu Ahl al-Imani ala Jihadi Abd al-Tissulbani, which points to the need for a 'jihad' against these foreigners.  The mother of the historian Zainuddin II was a Chompai (Chompala) woman near Mayyazhi.  It is believed that the graves of the mother and son are in the Kunjipalli here. 

Ali Adilshah (Sultan of Bijapur) and Zainuddin Makhdoom

Ali Adilshah, the Sultan of Bijapur (reigned 1551 to 1580) and Zainuddin were very close friends.  It is believed that Zainuddin helped the Zamorin, the ruler of Calicut, to negotiate with other Muslim rulers to build a stronghold in the Indian Ocean against the Portuguese.  He dedicated his history book in the name of the Sultan of Bijapur.  In his preface, he wrote: "I dedicate this book as a tribute to Sultan Ali Adil Shaikh, the most noble of rulers, the most beloved of kings, the one who enjoys war against disbelievers, and the one who fights and exalts the word of Allah."

Tuhfat ul Mujahideen; Narrative style

The book is divided into four parts with the aim of giving a spiritual and religious atmosphere to the resistance and resistance against the Portuguese.  All four can be seen as equally important in the history of Kerala and in the tradition of Islamic political philosophy.  The first chapter, the author's introduction, explains why the Muslims had to compromise against the Portuguese.  The first part gives inspirations for jihad and suggestions for it.  Part two gives a brief history of the beginning of Islamic propaganda in Malabar.  Part Three This section, which describes the customs of the Hindus of Kerala or Malabar, has been used extensively in later historical studies of Kerala.

They are particularly noteworthy as historical explorations of a local historian.  The fourth volume of the book is based on the arrival of the Portuguese in Malabar and their subsequent missions.  This section is described in fourteen chapters.  They tell the story of the invasions and counterattacks that took place here from the time of the Portuguese invasion of Malabar.  The book concludes with a reference to a new treaty between the Zamorin and the Portuguese, and to the appointment of a new viceroy to India after the unification of Portugal and Pain in 1580.  On the one hand, it must be assumed that the author did not live to describe later events.  In this book, Zainuddin follows the style of writing with the leading historians of the time and describes the years in which the major events took place.  He sought to document the historical consciousness and historical tradition of a society in its unique form.  And that effort deserves him in every way to be called the 'Thucydides' of Kerala.  He had an insight into the scientific history of Chana, which objectively described the socio-political environment in which the Islamic community in which he belonged lived. 

Highlights of Tuhfat ul Mujahideen

 The legacy of this book is a brief account of the naval battles waged by Kunjali Maraikkar, who was the main dog of the resistance against the Portuguese.  In particular, this book describes the facts since the family moved their residence from Kochi to Kozhikode in 1524. Ali Ibrahim and his son - in - law Ibrahim Marakkar's naval trade voyage to Gujarat in 1530-31, their destruction by the Portuguese, Kunhali Marakkar and his brother Ahmad Alimarak's attempt against them in 1533, and another attempt by Ali Ibrahim Marak at 1537-38.  The book describes the humiliation of Ali Ibrahim Maraikar in the betrayal, the retaliatory attack on Chaliyat led by Kootipokar in 1568, the capture of about 100 Portuguese soldiers in that battle, and the sacking of  Portuguese forts near Mangalore by the Kootipokars in 1570.

The Portuguese could not establish their dominance over Kerala due to these centuries of naval battles and resistance in the name of the precious concept of freedom of the Indian Ocean.  All they could do was set up their forts and factories at Kannur and Kochi.  The growth and development of the Malayalam language took place in this independent political context.  Had the Portuguese rule been established in Malabar, the collapse of the Konkani language and culture in Goa would have taken place here as well.  "It simply came to our notice then that this was not the case," he said.  

Many sea battles against the Portuguese took place here for more than a Jupiter period after the end of Zainuddin's book.  The third Pattumaraykar of the Kunjali Maraikkar dynasty was forced to shift his headquarters to the Kottakal area at the mouth of the Kottapuzha in Kadathanad (Vadakara).  With the permission of the Zamorin, the Portuguese established their alliance at Ponnani in 1586 and relocated their headquarters north. 

 Muhammad Kunjali Maraikkar (4th Kunjali), son-in-law of the Pattumaraiks, became the ruler of the Maraikkar fort in the Kottakal area in 1595. The Zamorin was annexed by the Portuguese in 1599 and the Maraic navy was crushed in a joint operation.  The Portuguese Captain and Furtado kidnapped the Kunjali Maraikars who surrendered before his Koya Zamorin, and they were taken to Goa and hanged in April 1600.  Thus ended a chapter of the naval resistance in Kerala against foreign domination.  

Tuhfat ul Mujahideen;  As a historical book

The story of this resistance by the Muslim community of Kerala has survived here for centuries as a community of their own.  This in turn renews this historical memory every year through a vow of the people.  The story of the resistance portrayed in Tuhfatul Mujahideen was spread in the Muslim community as an oral case.  This story, which was spread orally, was written by the British in 1793 on a palm leaf from the Great Khasi of Kozhikode.  The document is kept in the Library and Records of the India Office, London under the title Keralavarthamanam.  The fact that the author was able to copy the document during his research in London is included in this book as a supplementary document.  (This was previously published in Vijnanakairala. Volume XXV Issue 9, September 1994).  This is because Zainuddin's account and the ecstasy of the Portuguese arrival, which have been circulating for generations, help to make a comparative study. 

Similarly, Fathul Mubeen, a poet from Kozhikode, wrote a poem in the late sixteenth century, Khasi Muhammad, commemorating the remarkable event of the conquest of Chaliyam by the Portuguese navy and the conquest of Karku after the conquest of Chaliyam by the Muslims, Nair soldiers and the navy of Kunjalimara.  Its manuscripts were also circulated in Malabar.  All this is in order to preserve the historical memory of its activities in a society.


The drinking, publication and republishing of such anti-social Arabic texts is still a necessity today.  This is a historic task, especially at a time when some are coming forward to question the patriotism of a community and the self-sacrifice they have made for this country.  Such texts become a great inspiration to oppose the philosophy of the new colonialism.


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